Mind or Illusions
Mind or Illiusions

The concept of ‘mind’ itself poses old and new questions. The ancient Sumerians thought the soul
was in the liver. Aristotle thought the heart was most key, but the brain was related to the heart.

Hippocrates thought the brain was where the mind resided. Kolb and Whishaw debated whether the
brain or heart controlled the mind and behavior. Galen found that behavioral effects were evident in
head injury. Descartes argued that the nonphysical mind and the physical body were separate
entities but that the nonphysical mind could interact with the body a the location of pineal gland.
Today, most authorities on the mind believe there is a definite mind-body connection. Medical
doctors tend to question aspects of it. Metaphysicians, like Dr. Deepak Chopra believe that every cell
thinks, and a mind-body connection is as definite as the connection between all living things.

Brain activity was studied in the 19th century and the relation between the brain and mind focused on
the question of localization of function. Locations in the brain control specific behaviors, abilities, and
bodily functions, and finally, the stimulation of specific areas of the brain can produce motivated
behaviors and emotional experience such as aggressive behaviors and feelings of intense
pleasure. What are illusions?

Illusion has important implications for critical thinking because we often assume that what we have
seen or perceived directly provides us with good evidence upon which to base a conclusion.
Illusions tell us about our perceptions because we have to consider whether our perceptions
faithfully correspond to the physical energy changes, impinging on our senses.

In visual illusions, if our perception can be tricked by these illusions, this is evidence that our
sensory perceptual system is somehow transforming the physical stimulus into perceptual
experience that is different from what is actually there. If you think of illusions as failed hypotheses, it
can be useful. Our perception is like a conclusion we draw about the sensory data that we take in.
We make an unconscious inference based on the information available to us. This inference is
more or less likely to be correct. When we attempt to interpret this information, our perceptual
system applies rules in a way that causes us to accept an incorrect hypothesis, so that we
experience an illusion. This is suggesting that he perceiver is like a hypothesis tester. This is
consistent with much of the research on illusions and theories, especially those that emphasize the
influence of cues on depth perception. We know that theories can’t explain simple illusions. We
need new and progressive thinking about illusions or theories that can account for more of the
research observations.

In order to plant our feet firmly in the truth, we must use critical thinking. Accounting for time,
distance, and space provides us with the criteria to determine the truth or gossip or a general
agreement between people that cannot be proven.

Illusions are a trick that goes unnoticed in our ordinary perception. Despite the illusions we
experience every day, most of the time, we trust our perceptions. We behave as if we are perceiving
objects exactly as they are in the world. We trust what we see or perceive as an accurate reflection of
what is truly there.